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In , for example, six participants were gored along the festival, in , only four runners were injured by the horns of the bulls with exactly the same number of gored people in , nine in and 10 in ; with one of the latter killed.
Before that date, running was prohibited for women. In such cases injuries come both from asphyxia and contusions to those in the pile and from goring if the bulls crush into the pile. This kind of blocking of the entrance has occurred at least ten times in the history of the run, the last occurring in and the first dating back to A runner died of suffocation in one such pile up in Overall, since record-keeping began in , 15 people have been killed in the bull running of Pamplona, most of them due to being gored.
They are deployed in 16 sanitary posts every 50 metres on average , each one with at least a physician and a nurse among their personnel. Most of these people are volunteers, mainly from the Red Cross. In addition to the medical posts, there are around 20 ambulances. This organization makes it possible to have a gored person stabilized and taken to a hospital in less than 10 minutes.
Though there is no formal dress code, the very common and traditional attire is white trousers, white shirt with a red scarf around the waist and a red handkerchief around the neck. Another common dress practice, seen as a risk by some but as a daring depiction of courage by others is dressing in a conspicuous manner.
Many runners that want to be seen wear colors other than white, a common alternate color choice is blue. Others include large logos on their shirt to capture the attention of the bulls. In the age of social media explosion, this is also thought to be a way to highlight someone in a photo. The encierro of Pamplona has been depicted many times in literature, television or advertising, but became known worldwide partly because of the descriptions of Ernest Hemingway in books The Sun Also Rises and Death in the Afternoon.
The event is the basis for a chapter in James Michener 's novel The Drifters. The run is depicted in the Billy Crystal film City Slickers , where the character "Mitch" Crystal is gored non-fatally from behind by a bull during a vacation with the other main characters. The run appears in the Bollywood movie Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara , directed by Zoya Akhtar , as the final dare in the bucket list of the three bachelors who have to overcome their ultimate fear; death.
At first, the trio run part of the route. They stop at the square, but then recover their nerve, and continue to the end. The completion of the run depicts their freedom as they learn that surviving a mortal danger can bring joy. Running with Bulls, a documentary of the festival filmed by Construct Creatives and presented by Jason Farrel, depicts the pros and cons of the controversial tradition.
Since , the Esquire Channel has broadcast the running of the bulls as a show in the US,  with both live commentary and then a recorded 'round up' later in the day by NBCSN commentators the Men in Blazers , including interviews with noted participants such as Madrid-born runner David Ubeda,  former US Special Forces soldier turned filmmaker Dennis Clancey,  the historic New York-born runner Joe Distler,  and former British bullfighter and author Alexander Fiske-Harrison.
In , the eBook guide, Fiesta: How To Survive The Bulls Of Pamplona , caused headlines around the world when one of the contributors was gored by a bull soon after its publication. Other encierros have also caused fatalities. Bous al carrer , correbou or correbous meaning in Catalan , 'bulls in the street', 'street-bulls' is a typical festivity in many villages in the Valencian region , Terres de l'Ebre , Catalonia , and Fornalutx , Mallorca.
Another similar tradition is soltes de vaques , where cows are used instead of bulls. Even though they can take place all along the year, they are most usual during local festivals normally in August. Compared to encierros , animals are not directed to any bullring. These festivities are normally organized by the youngsters of the village, as a way for showing their courage and ability with the bull. Some sources consider this tradition a masculine initiation rite to adulthood.
For instance, in Calvisson , the annual event takes place around 20 July over a period of five days. There are four events: Boys and men run with the bulls and try and separate them from the horses, stop them, and physically turn them away from the horses. The English town of Stamford, Lincolnshire was host to the Stamford bull run for almost years until it was abandoned in Some butchers came to part the combatants and one of the bulls ran into the town, causing a great uproar.
The earl, mounting his horse, rode after the animal, and enjoyed the sport so much, that he gave the meadow in which the fight began, to the butchers of Stamford, on condition that they should provide a bull, to be run in the town every 13 November, for ever after.
As of the bull run had been revived as a ceremonial, festival-style community event. A variation is the nightly " fire bull " where balls of flammable material are placed on the horns. Currently the bull is often replaced by a runner carrying a frame on which fireworks are placed and dodgers, usually children, run to avoid the sparks.
The Big Easy Rollergirls roller derby team has performed an annual mock bull run in New Orleans , Louisiana since The team, dressed as bulls, skates after runners through the French Quarter. In , there were 14, runners and over "bulls" from all over the country, with huge before- and after-parties. In Ballyjamesduff , Ireland, an annual event called the Pig Run is held with small pigs.
It looks just like a mini- encierro but with pigs instead of bulls. In Dewey Beach, Delaware , a bar named The Starboard  [ full citation needed ] sponsors an annual Running of the Bull [ sic ], in which hundreds of red- and white-clad beachgoers are chased down the shore by a single "bull" two people in a pantomime horse -style costume.
In Rangiora , New Zealand, an annual Running of the Sheep is held, in which — sheep are released down the main street of the small farming town. The Running of the Bulls UK is a pub crawl event that takes place on London's Hampstead Heath and uses fast human runners in place of bulls. Many opponents argue that bulls are mentally injured by the harassment and voicing of both participants and spectators, and some of animals may also die because of the stress , especially if they are roped or bring flares in their horns bou embolat version.
Many animal rights activists oppose the event. By marching naked, they protested the festival and the following bullfight, arguing the bulls are tortured for entertainment. The city of San Miguel de Allende , Mexico, cancelled its Sanmiguelada running of the bulls after , citing public disorder associated with the event.
It is now called La Marquesada and the three-day event is held during the last weekend of the month of September or first weekend of October. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Running of the Bulls. This article is about the primarily continental European practice. For the defunct English practice, see Bull running. Running of the bulls". Archived from the original on 5 May Retrieved 21 July Ayuntamiento de Pamplona Council of Pamplona.
Archived from the original on 29 May Bando San Fermin Archived from the original on 2 April Retrieved 20 March Retrieved 8 March Noticias de Navarra in Spanish. Archived from the original on 16 July It has been a Festival of International Tourist Interest since The University of Zaragoza is based in the city. As one of the oldest universities in Spain and a major research and development centre, this public university awards all the highest academic degrees in dozens of fields.
The city is connected by motorway with the main cities in central and northern Spain, including Madrid , Barcelona , Valencia , and Bilbao , all of which are located about kilometres miles from Zaragoza.
The network consists of 31 regular lines two of them circle lines , two scheduled routes, six shuttle buses one free , and seven night buses operating on Fridays, Saturdays and other festivities. Zaragoza's bicycle lanes facilitate non-motorized travel and help cyclists to avoid running into pedestrians and motor vehicles. The city council also has a public bicycle-hire scheme; the 'bizi zaragoza' - which consists in the payment of an annual charge.
The first line of the Zaragoza tram Valdespartera-Parque Goya is fully operational. The central station is "Intermodal Zaragoza Delicias Station", which serves both railway lines and coaches. Zaragoza Airport is located in the Garrapinillos neighborhood, 10 kilometers from the city center. It is a major commercial airport, its freight traffic surpassing that of Barcelona El Prat in ,  and serves as the home of the Spanish Air Force 's 15th Group.
The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Zaragoza, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 48 min. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 4. Founded on 18 March , its home games are played at La Romareda , which seats 34, spectators. The club has spent the majority of its history in La Liga.
A government survey in found that 2. Zaragoza's second football team is CD Ebro. Three matches were played at La Romareda. Stadium Casablanca , a.
Mann Filter for sponsorship reasons, is the Spanish women's basketball club from Zaragoza that plays in the Primera Division. This event was launched in , and chose the desert of Monegros because of the scenery and availability of service infrastructure in Zaragoza. Zaragoza was strongly associated with Jaca in its failed bid for the Winter Olympics. A permanent feature built for Expo is the pump-powered artificial whitewater course "El Canal de Aguas Bravas. Near the basilica on the banks of the Ebro are located the city hall, the Lonja old currency exchange , La Seo literally "the See " in the Aragonese language or Cathedral of San Salvador , a church built over the main mosque partially preserved in the 11th-century north wall of the Parroquieta , with Romanesque apses from the 12th century; inside, the imposing hallenkirche from the 15th to 16th centuries, the Baroque tower, and finally, with its famous Museum of Tapestries near the Roman ruins of forum and port city wall.
The Aragonese parliament currently sits in the building. Other important sights are the stately houses and palaces in the city, mainly of the 16th century: On 14 June , the site of Expo opened its doors to the public.
The exhibition ran until 14 September. Museums  in Zaragoza are:. Zaragoza is twinned with: Zaragoza has special bilateral collaboration agreements with: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the city in Spain. See also Zaragoza disambiguation or Saragossa disambiguation. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message.
List of twin towns and sister cities in Spain. Archived from the original on 23 September Retrieved 26 September Archived from the original on Multilingualism in the Graeco-Roman Worlds. Archived from the original on 24 December Retrieved 23 December Archived from the original on 19 March Myths, Visions and Realities.
Archived from the original on 2 May Archived from the original on 15 March Retrieved 25 July The New York Times. Retrieved 12 July Retrieved 13 March Gordon Melton 15 January Archived PDF from the original on Archived from the original on 20 June Retrieved 27 December Archived from the original on 4 June Archived from the original on 13 March Gaona 13 September Heraldo de Aragon Editora Digital.
Archived from the original on 3 November Retrieved 30 June Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Archived from the original on 24 August